Lucas Manyane Mangope
Lucas Manyane Mangope
Full name: Manyane Lucas Mangope
Birth date: 27 December 1923 at Motswedi, north-west of Zeerust, Transvaal, into an old ruling family of chiefs.
Place of birth: Motswedi Village, North West Province
Married to: Leah a former nurse by profession, passed away in July 26, 2003.
Children: Seven children
Academic qualifications: After matriculating at St. Peter's College, Rosetenville in Johannesburg, he qualified as a teacher at the Bethel Training College.
1946: He was sent to an Anglican mission school and attained his Senior Certificate in 1946 at St. Peter's College in Johannesburg. He then enrolled at the Diocesan Teachers' Training College near Pietersburg, where he obtained his Junior Teaching Diploma.In accordance with the traditional custom of succession, Mangope had, on reaching age 21, become leader of the Mathlathowa regiment of his own Tswana group.
From 1947 to 1949 he worked in the Department of Native Affairs.
In 1951 commenced studying for the Higher Primary Teacher's Diploma at Bethel College near Litchenburg, Transvaal. After completing the course, he entered the teaching profession, specialising in Afrikaans, and taught at various secondary schools in Motswedi, Mafikeng, Potchefstrom and Krugersdorp.
1959 he was awarded the Professor Bunning trophy when his class obtained the best results in Afrikaans among all competing schools in South Africa.
1959: Mangope, destined to be chief, developed an interest in politics and on the death of his father in 1959, became chief of the Motswedi-Bahuruse-Boo-Manyane tribe and joined the Zeerust regional authority. He also served on the Bantu Education Advisory Board and the advisory council of the University of the North (Turflop).
8 August 1959 he ascended to the Chieftainship of his tribe and he revealed exceptional qualities of leadership and statesmanship that gave indications of spectacular political successes to come.
In 1961, when the Tswana territorial authority was established, Mangope became vice-chairman under Chief TR Pilane.
1968-72: With the establishment of the Tswana Territorial Authority he rose from Deputy Chairman to Chief Councillor of the territory during the period f 1968-72.
1968-72: When the authority was reconstituted in 1968, he became chief councillor of the executive council, remaining in his position until June 1972 when he became the first chief minister of Bophuthatswana.
1972 he became the first leader of the then Bophuthatswana National Party, the first ruling party in the Legislative Assembly. He also became the first Chief Minister of Bophuthatswana in this year (1972-77).
Until 1972 Mangope appeared convinced that separate development was the only effective way for Africans to progress in South Africa. However, following a visit to the United States in 1973, he indicated that he would prefer to see social and economic quality in South Africa, together with one-person one-vote participation in the central political system, but accepted thet it was impossible to achieve this overnight.
1974: Mangope resigned from the Bophuthatswana National Party and became leader of the newly-established Bophuthatswana Democratic Party (BDP) in 1974.
November 16 1974 he made an announcement that he was forming a new political party, the Bophuthatswana Democratic Party.
In 1975 he secured his position as chief minister when the legislative assembly gave him increased support.
1977: Bophuthatswana became formally independent in 1977 and Mangope's BDP took power.
December 6 1977 he became he first President of the Bophuthatswana Homeland.
On 27 October 1978 Bophuthatswana held its second general elections since Independence in 1977. Mangope's BDP won 66 of the 72 seats, he remaining six being won by the Progressive People's Party led by Rocky Malebane Metsing.
1980 awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Law (LLD), by the University of Bophuthatswana now known as the University of the North West at its first ever graduation ceremony.
In October 1982 the BDP won a landslide victory in the first post-infependence election, winning all 72 popularly elected seats and the 24 seats filled by nominees of chiefs and head-men.
On 11 July 1984 he was elected unopossed for a second seven-year term of office.
On 9 October 1985 Mangope closed the University of Bophuthatswana following student demonstrations against visits by State President PW Botha and Conservative Party Leader, Andries Treunicht. The university re-opened on 6 November and in December Mangope called an emergency sesssion of the national assembly to amend legislation giving himself control over educational institutions.
During November 1985 unrest spread in Bophuthatswana with orgainsations opposing Mangope's policies spearheading bus and education boycotts.
In March 1986 11 people died as a result of police action at Winterveld.
1986: Despite continuing tension in Bophuthatswana, in July 1986 Mangope telexed the African National Congress (ANC) offering o act as mediator between it and the South African Government. The ANC responded that it did not wish to have a dealings with Mangope.
1988: Early on the morning of 10 February 1988 Mangope and almost his entire cabinet were arrested and the presidency was seized by Malebane Metsing. However, the brief coup was crushed 15 hours later by the South African troops who surrounded the Independence Stadium and arrested rebel troops. General Jannie Geldenhuys, then head of the South African Army, and General Johan van der Merwe, then head of the security police, entered the stadium with about a hundred troops to free the hostages. Malebane Metsing fled to Zambia, and was subsequently elected a member of the national executive committee of the African National Congress in July 1991.
Reasons given for the coup included Mangope's close association with one Shabtai Kalmanovits, once Bophuthatswana's trade representative in Israel, whom Mangope had allegedly assisted at a cost of R 1,5 Million when he was accused of spying for foreign powers; misuse of funds; election irregularities; confiscation of land from tribal authorities and others without adequate compensation; and resentment in the Bophuthatswana Defence Force concerning salaries, staffing and senior positions being held by South African officers. As the result of the attempted coup, the PPP was banned and its national executive was charged with treason. Following the coup, mass arrests and a purge in government departments took place and Mangope consolodated his position. Among those forced to resign was Mangope's former Minister of Internal Affairs and the main contender in the next presidential election, Chief Motsatsi.
In December 1991 Mangope attended the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (Codesa) as leader of the delegation of the Bophuthatswana administration. He refused to sign the Codesa declaration of intent on the grounds that it could result in the abolition of Bophuthatswana as a sovereign independent state. Mangope had previously indicated in April 1991 hat he favoured a federal system of government with strong regional powers.
In May 1992, in principle agreement was reached at Codesa that the re-incorporation of the independent and self governing bantustans into South Africa might be the best option for these territories. However, Mangope - together with Buthelezi of KwaZulu and Gqozo of Ciskei had previously met with state president De Klerk, and indicated that he powers of these territories would have to be defined and accepted before agreement could be reached on re-incorporation. In this regard, Mangope favoured a federal system of government.
1994 Mangope was deposed and Bophuthatswana was reincorporated into the North West Province under the new dispensation of the new Republic of South Africa.
In 1994 Mangope entered the Multi-Party Negotiations on the future of South Africa with other parties and the then Transitional Executive Council (TEC) denied his party participation in the 1994 general election because of different views his party held.
In 1995 the UCDP fielded candidates for the Local Government Elections and won seats in some towns and district councils in the North West and in Cape Town in the Western Cape.
On 21 and 22 July 1998, Judge Mullins had found Mangope guilty on 102 counts of theft totaling R3 543 685.98 and on three counts of fraud involving his transmitting R1,3 million in personal funds.
The 1999 general elections saw the UCDP enter centre stage of the South African politics. The party became the official opposition in the North West Legislature, and had three seats in the National Assembly and one in the National Council of Provinces.
The 2000 Local Government Elections saw the UCDP giving a good account of itself gaining 113 Councillors. Though the Party was not in control of any Municipality the UCDP came out as the Official Opposition in almost all the North West Municipalities they contested.
2002: He became a subject of biographical record in Who is Who in the World in their 19th Edition of 2002, " an inclusion which is limited to those individuals who have demonstrated outstanding achievement in their fields of endeavor and who have, thereby, contributed significantly to the betterment of contemporary society".